In China, restrictions on GMOs are primarily provided by the agricultural GMO regulations enacted by the State Council in 2001 and relevant administrative rules. The EC, a juristic person, has a number of key functions in the application and approval process for GMO-related activities. Canada regulates products derived from biotechnology processes as part of its existing regulatory framework for “novel products.” The focus is on the traits expressed in the products and not on the method used to introduce those traits. There are strict rules on how a scientifically-based risk assessment is to be conducted. . Every major scienti c body in the world agrees that GMO foods are just as safe […]  Biowatch Trust, a nongovernmental organization engaged in monitoring and publicizing issues of genetic modification, made a number of requests for information regarding the use of GMOs in South Africa, including locations of GMO field trials and risk-assessment data. Press | The general attitude in England is averse to GM products; however, a slight shift in attitude towards GM products has recently been reported, and the UK government’s policy indicates a more receptive attitude towards these products. Criminal and civil penalties may be applied in relation to breaches of the legislation, and offenders may be ordered to mitigate or remedy any adverse effect on people or the environment. The Consumer Protection Act requires that “[a]ny person who produces, supplies, imports or packages any prescribed goods must display on, or in association with the package or those goods, a notice in the prescribed manner and form that that discloses the presence of any genetically modified ingredients or components of those in accordance with applicable regulations.” Goods covered by this requirement are all goods approved for consumption by the EC and containing at least 5% GMOs. You need a permit if you want to participate in activities relating to genetically modified organisms in South Africa. , Hanibal Goitom
 If the user fails to take any such measures, the EC may step in and take all the necessary actions at the user’s expense. GMOs and food or feed made from GMOs can be marketed in or imported into the EU, provided that they are authorized after passing strict evaluation and safety assessment requirements that are imposed on a case-by-case basis. Why are GMOs regulated?  Some of its functions include, The EC may have up to ten members, who are appointed by the Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. . 29, 2009), http://www .info.gov.za/view/DownloadFileAction?id=99961. , Despite the recognition of the risks involved, GMO-related activities appear to enjoy support within scientific and academic circles, with supporters believing that the risks are manageable.  When damage occurs, users are responsible for cleanup costs. Inspector General | Despite the higher cost of GM seeds, adoption by many farmers was quick, steady, and widespread. The various permits allow the following activities: importation of GMOs into South Africa; exportation of GMOs from South Africa Israel’s religious kashrut authority has determined that the use of GMO ingredients in food does not affect its kosher status because GMOs are only used in “microscopic” proportions. Belgium is considered to have an intermediate level of restrictions on GMOs, although public opinion tends to generally be hostile to GMOs. See also a summary of the case at Trustees For the Time Being of the Biowatch Trust v. Registrar Genetic Resources and Others, Right2Info, http://www.right2info.org/cases/r2i-trustees-for-the-time-being-of-the-biowatch-trust-v.-registrar-genetic-resources-and-others (last visited Oct 30, 2013). As a consequence, some regions have enacted slightly more permissive regimes than others. Jobs | Additionally, it establishes authorization procedures for GMO research, and establishes rules for the production and marketing of GMOs, restrictions on their release into the environment, regimes for their cultivation, requirements for reporting their release, inspections and monitoring of GMO research activities and their commercial release, implementing authorities and authorizing procedures for their release, and restrictions on GMOs in foodstuffs. The use of GMOs in food is a sensitive topic that generates strong public opinion. , The GMO Act and its subsidiary legislation also impose criminal liability for certain actions.  Legislation, DAFF, http://www.daff.gov.za/# (click on “Agricultural Production, Health & Food Safety Branch,” then “Biosafety,” then “Legislation”) (last visited Oct. 30, 2013); GMO Act, Preamble. 54 of 1972 (May 19, 1972), available on the South African Department of Health website, at http://www.doh.gov.za/docs/legislation/acts/2011/Act-541972.pdf. The GMO Law provides that violations of its provisions or its regulations are punishable with civil penalties. Egyptian laws do not contain restrictions on researching, producing, or marketing genetically modified crops and food products. By 2013 Cameroon, Malawi and Uganda had approved trials of genetically altered crops.  It consists of up to ten members appointed by the Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, eight of whom must be knowledgeable in the field of science applicable to GMO-related activities.  The Court also found unacceptable the Registrar’s claim that Biowatch’s request was too broad, noting that the Registrar had a legal obligation to work with Biowatch to identify the relevant information sought. The regulation for mandatory GM labelling in South Africa does not make provision for the terms "GMO free", "non-GM" or "organic". Advertising or labeling the presence of GMOs in particular food is voluntary unless there is a health or safety concern. The most recent statistical data located regarding public sentiment toward GMOs in South Africa is contained in a 2005 study, which found that only a small segment of South Africa’s public had an understanding of and held an opinion about GMOs. . It makes it an offense for anyone to “alter, obscure, falsify, remove or omit . The GMO Act places various restrictions on the research, production, and marketing of GMOs, including requiring permits, risk assessments, notification to the public, registration, and demonstrated safety to the environment.  If the EC approves an application, it must include all applicable terms and conditions that the Registrar may then attach to a permit.  South Africa first approved the commercial release of genetically modified, insect-resistant cotton and maize in 1997. Genetically modified (GM) crops have been produced in the initial adopting countries for 20 years. Pests have been a big problem in South Africa for decades, and GM crops, when first introduced, were seen by many as a new and much-needed solution to the problem. USA.gov. 467 (Apr. labeling .  Genetically Modified Organisms Amendment Act No. , The AC is a national advisory body on all matters having to do with GMO-related activities, including the introduction of GMOs into the environment, contained use, transboundary movement, and drafting of GMO-related laws and guidelines. These include promoting responsible GMO-related activities; limiting harm to the environment as well as to human and animal health; and establishing standards for conducting risk assessments for GMO-related activities. 34020 (Feb. 18, 2011), http://www.info.gov.za /view/142060; Genetically Modified Organisms Act, 1997, Regulations Amendments, 2011, GN No. Following a recent regime shift in Norway it is yet unclear whether Norway’s position on GMOs might change.  The law imposes this requirement if the composition, nutritional value, mode of storage, preparation, or cooking “of the foodstuff differs significantly from the characteristic composition of the corresponding existing foodstuff. 68 of 2008, 526 Government Gazette [GG], No. Criminal penalties and administrative sanctions may be applied to violations of licensing requirements. .”, A different law imposes additional, specific labeling requirements.  The Registrar is also required to arrange for inspection of facilities where GMO-related activities take place and order the cessation of an activity that he or she has established or reasonably suspects is in violation of the GMO Act or a condition set under a permit. Cultivation of transgenic plants for commercial use is not allowed in the Russian Federation. Since 2001 the EU has had a de facto moratorium on GMO approvals, but a September 2013 decision of the General Court of the EU may put an end to the moratorium.  However, the Court held that Biowatch was entitled to access some information and that the Registrar’s refusal to grant access to such information violated Biowatch’s constitutional rights. 35007 (Feb. 10, 2012), http://www.info.gov.za/view/159582; Genetically Modified Organisms Act, 1997, Regulations Amendments, 2011, GN No. , Any applicant aggrieved by a decision or action of the EC, the Registrar, or an inspector may appeal before the Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries within thirty days of the issuance of the decision or action in question. The status of GMO crops in Africa hasn’t changed all that much since the 2009 publicationof “GMO Trade Regulation and Developing Countries” by Richard B. Stewart, who wrote: Different assessments of costs and benefits among the nations have led to a patchwork of environmental health and safety regulations regarding GMO foods and crops. The growth and sale of GMOs are permitted in England and Wales, subject to an intensive authorization process that occurs primarily at the European Union level. They are required to take a number of actions, including ceasing the act causing the damage, containing/minimizing the spread of the GMOs, eliminating the source of the damage, and remedying the damage caused. The second section has materials discussing the issue in particular jurisdictions and is divided into sections on Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe. Prior risk assessment and subsequent monitoring and reporting are necessary for all GMO-related activities. All activities with GMOs in South Africa are primarily regulated under the GMO Act.  When the Registrar refused to release information on the grounds that the request was too broad and that part of the information sought was proprietary in nature, Biowatch instituted a legal action before the High Court against the Registrar, the EC, and others. c) An evaluation of the consequences should these adverse effects be realized. Such activities must be approved by the Environmental Protection Authority, which is required to take into account environmental, economic, social, cultural, and public health considerations. , In 2005, questions regarding access to information on GMO-related activities were litigated in court.  If the release of a GMO “may pose a threat to an indigenous species or the environment no permit for such a release may be issued unless an environmental impact assessment has been conducted” under the terms of the relevant law.  In addition, inspectors have the power to conduct routine, unannounced, and warrantless inspections of facilities registered for conducting GMO-related activities, and take samples of GMOs. GMOs in food, drugs, and biological products are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Public Health Service Act.  The notice must include, among other things, information about the applicant, the objective of the application, the general description of the GMOs, and the place of release. There are several EU-approved GMOs that are specifically illegal in Norway. 673) Genetically Modified Organisms Act … The EC reviews all GE applications submitted in terms of the “GMO” Act and uses a case-by-case and precautionary approach to ensure sound decision-making in the 2012). Argentina is the third largest grower of biotech crops in the world, after the United States and Brazil.  All decisions of the EC require unanimous support of its members, and anything short of that amounts to rejection. There are two major international protocols that address genetically modified organisms, the Cartagena Protocol of 2000 and the Nagoya-Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol of 2010. , South Africa requires that foodstuffs obtained through certain techniques of genetic modification be labeled as such before they are offered for sale in the marketplace. 23 of 2006 (Apr. GMOs are regulated in Argentina under the Law on Seeds and Phytogenetic Creations and the Law on the Promotion of the Development and Production of Modern Biotechnology, and under administrative regulations issued by the Secretary of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Food.  Department of Agriculture, Application for Intentional Introduction (Conduct a Trial Release) of a Genetically Modified Organism into the Environment of South Africa, http://www.services.gov.za /services/webdav/Documents /Agriculture/trial_release.pdf (last visited Oct. 30, 2013). Although it is legal to plant GM crops in Japan if certain procedures are followed, no commercial planting of GM crops (aside from ornamental flowers) is occurring in Japan at this time, mainly because the general public is skeptical about the safety of GM crops.  GMO Act § 19; GMO Regulations § 11, as amended.  A person also commits a crime if he refuses to cooperate with or provides false or misleading information to an inspector, the Registrar, the EC, or the AC. Russia recently adopted an approval procedure for release of GMOs into the environment, which brings the country closer to possible cultivation of GM plants. A person commits an offense if he contravenes any of the GMO Act’s provisions or any condition, restriction, ban, or instruction imposed under its provisions. 10 of 2004 [NEMBA], 20 BSRSA (rev’d through 2012). Nevertheless, Japan is one of largest importers of GMO foods, though labeling is required if GM crops are used in food in certain cases. Most legislation in England and Wales that applies to GMOs is implementing legislation for EU law. Africa include 5 Argentine canola, 10 cotton, 42 maize, 1 rice (for food), and 12 soybeans. A study investigating voluntary labeling in South Africa found that 31% of products labeled as … , South Africa has a fairly vigorous regulatory regime governing various aspects of GMO use, including contained use, trial release, commercial release, and transboundary movement. Exclusively used in animal fodder products ] Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act No nations, while ban. 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